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4WD off-Road information, valuable advice and the latest tips for safe wheeling and hot new gear reviews
Updated: 11 hours 20 min ago

Deadly Mistakes: Spinning Tires

Mon, 06/15/2015 - 00:00
Deadly Mistakes: Spinning Tires Hitting the gas causes the wheels to spin. Without traction, you can drift or slide into the ravine.
(Click picture for a larger image.)
Getting stuck is a common occurrence among four wheelers. After all, we intentionally drive in difficult areas. Every situation is different, but one common trait I see is the inappropriate use of power to get through. It seems logical enough: I’m stuck or losing momentum; why not just hit the gas? In reality, you want to throttle back or back out in most situations.

Hitting the gas (throttle) often just causes the wheels to spin. Without traction, you begin to drift or slide. Because the ground is never level, you’ll slide in whatever direction is off camber. You could slide into a pile of rocks or worse—go off the edge of a cliff.

You could go from being merely stuck to a life-threatening situation.

It’s easy to lose traction while going uphill. As they near the top, some drivers goose the engine to propel themselves over. More often than not, the wheels start spinning and the vehicle stops. In some cases the front end jumps up and down. This can cause serious damage. When the wheels touch the ground and--therefore, stop suddenly--it sends a shockwave through the drive train. Drive shafts get twisted. The strap that holds the drive shaft to the pinion gets torn off. Axles, lockers, and free-wheeling hubs can break.

In a situation like this, it’s better to back down and rethink your strategy.

Another possibility is that the driver is able to maintain traction as he nears the top. Along the way, the vehicle picks up momentum. At the top of the hill, an automatic transmission may want to gear down. Doing so causes a sudden transfer of power to the wheels resulting in the wheels breaking free and spinning. It’s actually better to ease up on the throttle to gain traction and try "walking" the front wheels before you lose all forward momentum.

It sounds counterintuitive, but it’s true: Traction improves at slower speeds. Some situations require you to crawl along at idle speed. Throw the vehicle in Low or first gear, and let it creep by itself. I have been able to make progress up a slope with a thin covering of snow using this method. (You may need to air down, as well.)

Spinning wheels also dig holes in the ground, making it difficult for you (or anyone else) to proceed. This is especially true going uphill. As you’re sitting there spinning your wheels, you’re creating divots in the dirt.

As you back up and try again, your wheels hit those divots, and you lose traction and momentum.

The other thing I see is frequently is the process of turning a small step into a large step. When the front wheels make it up but the back wheels don’t, the application of power most often results in just spinning the wheels. That spinning moves material away from the step digging it deeper and deeper. The obstacle becomes significantly changed making it harder for everyone.

To review, spinning wheels can cause you to:
  1. Drift into a bad situation.
  2. Damage the drive train or other parts.
  3. Modify the trail so it’s more difficult for others to use.


Unhappily, every once in a while it works - a driver is able to get out of the jam (or over the hill) with power, dust flying and tires spinning. That, unfortunately, just reinforces a bad technique. Four wheeling is all about implementing the correct techniques at the proper time. Train yourself to ease up on the accelerator the second you feel your wheels spinning. You’ll regain control of your vehicle, allowing you to “walk” out of a tough situation.
##########################

Related Articles from Badlands Off-road Adventures Did you miss the previous article? Upcoming Events

(click on the link for details)
Mojave Lower Desert, CA
(Click picture for a larger image.) We have two big events coming up during July and August - The Wine Safari and the Rubicon Trail. It is time to register for both events. The Wine Safari is only a few weekends away and you need to start planning for the Rubicon Trail (see below).

Summary of upcoming events.





########################## Rocks Clinic June 20

Rocks

The Class will be in Johnson Valley. This is an introduction to Rock crawling but it is not on "baby" rocks. We take our time and stress careful wheel placement. We use spotters for difficult sections. You learn by inspecting the obstacle and predicting the line; by watching others try their line; by experiencing it yourself; and by the coaching. We recommend you repeat the training several times. You will be much more relaxed the second time over the same obstacles and you will pick up on little details missed the first time. More Details...


You can register directly at http://www.4x4training.com/calendar/calendar.php#Rocks






##########################
Wine Safari July 25



Don't miss the Wine Safari. Click here for all details.
Our Wine Master will have a whole new bunch of bottles and some old favorites to taste. Make it a get-away weekend. Camp with us or stay in a local motel.




Register now.
http://4x4training.com/calendar/calendar.php#wine.



########################## Rubicon Trail Adventure August 10- 13, 2015

The Rubicon Trail is the stuff of legends. It is considered the Grand Daddy of trails. If your vehicle has a weakness, it will find it. Any serious four-wheeler needs to "Do the 'Con" at least once. There is no guarantee of avoiding vehicle damage. Even the most skilled driver can succumb to the fatigue of 12 unrelenting miles of rocks. Just bring a good attitude and the best prepared vehicle you can. This could be a once in a lifetime trip but a lifelong of bragging rights. More Details


You need to register now so you have time to prepare. Register directly at http://4x4training.com/calendar/calendar.php#Rubicon








Winch Recovery Bandana & Winching DVD
Click for higher resolution image We have our new stock with many new colors (Red, Orange, Green, and Blue) on hand. The Bandana is packed full of useful information and is a quick reference in the field when no DVD player is available."

The Bandana layout follows the “Vehicle Recovery Plan” with pathways to more detail. A unique section of the Bandana, gives the steps for a “Winch Rigging Check: Walk through” so that you verify every element of the rigging before you commit to the pull. Stuff this in your recovery kit and you will always be ready!

Pick up or order the Winching DVD too! There is no substitute for hands on training. If you can, sign up for one of Badlands Off-Road Adventure’s Winching Clinics.

Warning – the Bandana and DVD are not a substitute for proper training and use of quality equipment that is used within the bounds of their safe working load. We advise you to use the information provided in both the Winching Recovery Bandana and the "Basic to Advanced Winching and Recovery DVD" at your own risk. We cannot control the quality and specifications of the equipment used and the methods actually employed.

Winch Recovery Bandana Order Button
Colors Orange Red Blue Natural Green Natural

Order a Basic to Advanced Winching & Recovery DVD too!


(Click picture for more details)













I hope to see you on the trails!
Tom Severin, President
Badlands Off Road Adventures, Inc.
4-Wheel Drive School
310-613-5473
http://www.4x4training.com
Make it Fun. Keep it Safe.

If you find this information valuable, please pass it on to a friend. You can forward them the email. If you received a forwarded copy of this newsletter and would like to subscribe for yourself, go to: www.4x4training.com/contacts.html and follow the instructions to join our mail list.
Want To Use This Article In Your Magazine, E-Zine, Club Newsletter Or Web Site? You are welcome to use it anytime, just be sure to include the following author/copyright information: Tom Severin, 4x4 Coach, teaches 4WD owners how to confidently and safely use their vehicles to the fullest extent in difficult terrain and adverse driving conditions. Visit www.4x4training.com to develop or improve your driving skill.

Copyright 2015, Badlands Off-Road Adventures, Inc.

Extra Fuel Cans Are A Real Gas

Tue, 05/12/2015 - 00:00
Extra Fuel Cans Are A Real Gas One well-known model is the "jerry" can (sometimes called NATO style).
(Click picture for a larger image.)
Due to a number of variables, it’s difficult to say precisely how much extra gas you need for a particular trip. Generally, 5 to 10 gallons is enough for most trips. That will get you to another source of fuel in most circumstances.

One factor is your vehicle’s mileage while off road. As a newer driver, you’re not likely to know that. Your first few trips should be on shorter routes close to civilization. These give you the chance to measure the difference in fuel consumption of your vehicle off-road. (And, of course, build some skills.) Sizes, styles of gas cans RotopaX cans are rectangular and feature hand holds and openings that allow you to mount them in a variety of ways.
(Click picture for a larger image.) You have several styles and brands to choose from. In most cases, the style is dictated by how you plan to mount the gas can.

One well-known model is the "jerry" can (sometimes called NATO style). Wedco and Wavian make this type, in steel. The most common size is 20 liters, which easily holds 5 gallons. (Incidentally, the 5-liter just the right size for holding wine! But probably not food grade.)

The "jerry" can has been around since WWII. An important feature is the special cap. Note that it clasps securely, thereby eliminating leakage while you’re bouncing along on the trails.

The cans must now be sold with a unique funnel. With that special funnel the gas can is CARB compliant. CARB stands for California Air Resource Board. Look for the “CARB Compliant” label on all gas cans and spouts, even if you live in other states. The EPA has adopted the CARB requirement.

RotopaX cans are rectangular and feature hand holds and openings that allow you to mount them in a variety of ways. They come in smaller sizes than the Wedco cans, too. The 2 gallon version is very popular. The cans can be stacked together for easy transport. A RotopaX on a vehicle from www.Olympic4x4products.com
(Click picture for a larger image.)

Cam Cans , by Day Star, are designed to mount on the inside of the spare tire with the hardware provided. They are available in convenient 2-gallon versions. When you are first setting up your rig and need a quick solution, before you have had time to add tire racks and roof racks, look at the Cam Cans.

Another option is the fuel caddy by AEV. This is designed to mount between the spare tire and tail gate. A nifty arrangement, and at 10 gallons, it has a lot of capacity. The caddy is quite heavy with that amount of gas, so it stays mounted while you refuel. You’ll want to use something like a Super Siphon, described below, to transfer the gas to your tank.

You may have heard of or seen a Sceptor gas can. These are similar to jerry cans made of heavy plastic. They don’t have the CARB compliant cap and cannot be sold legally in the U.S. They are only available to the US military and Homeland Security.

A final option is to install another gas tank. That’s an expensive route, although a very nice solution for long range overlanding. Make sure the gas tank is installed properly and that your vehicle still meets air quality standards; that is your vehicle will still pass the Smog test.

You don’t always need that much extra gas while four wheeling, though. Four to ten gallons is usually plenty.


How to mount the gas can Gas cans can also be transported on the top of your vehicle. This image shows six jerry gas cans on a roof rack.
(Click picture for a larger image.) The most common method involves mounting on an after-market bumper. Most replacement bumpers are designed to accommodate the spare tire and at least one 5 gallon gas can - many come with two slots for cans. RotopaX cans and AEV’s fuel caddy, as mentioned above, mount nicely to the spare wheel assembly. (Some extra hardware may be needed.)

Gas cans may also be transported on the top of your vehicle. The image shows six jerry gas cans on a roof rack. By far the largest drawback to roof top storage is lifting the cans into place. As a rule of thumb, you can assume Gas weighs about 6 pounds per gallon (depending on the blend and additives it can be a bit more or less). So a full 5 gallon can of gas is in the neighborhood of 30 pounds. Not too bad, until you have it overhead.

By the way, a gallon of water is 8.3 pounds, which explains why a 5 gallon can of water at 41.5 pounds is so much harder to lift onto the roof rack. Also you should use these calculations to determine the load you are placing on the roof rack. Six can at 30 pounds is 180 pounds which might actually exceed the rated capability!

I have a backup plan for the day, I feel too weak to muscle a gas of can onto the roof rack. I strategically placed the gas cans behind the sun roof so I can pop through and lift one up from the front seat! This is a TJ bumper made by www.Nates4x4.com that holds 2 cans flat behind the spare tire.
(Click picture for a larger image.)



How to safely fill and use gas cans Siphoning doesn’t require you suck gas!
Safety is paramount, even when you’re filling gas cans.

Static electricity is a real concern when working with fuel. Turn off your vehicle before filling. As you step out of your vehicle, touch some metal part of the car. Fill the gas can only when it’s on the ground.

Never smoke while filling. Turn off your engine and extinguish any flame that is nearby. Don’t transport gasoline inside a vehicle. The fumes can build up, overpowering the occupants and creating an explosive situation.

Make sure you use the proper color of gas can for fuels: red for gasoline, yellow for diesel and (typically) green or blue for water. The one drawback to Cam Cans is that they don’t come in red or yellow. Make sure you clearly mark which ones are used for fuel and which contain water.

Siphoning gasoline (and other fuels) used to be a challenge. Remember getting gas in your mouth? Well, times have changed. Safety Siphon and Super Jiggler have developed a nifty siphon that doesn’t require you to suck the gas. The siphon is simply a clear piece of plastic tube with a special brass valve on one end. After inserting the brass end in the source of fuel, you jiggle it a few times. That will get the fuel flowing. It’s like magic!

Both brands are relatively inexpensive, and they’ll drain a gas can in minutes. These siphons rely on gravity flow, so the gas can should be above the gas tank inlet.

Funnels work in a pinch but be careful to minimize spillage. A typical way 2 cans are mounted on either side of the spare.
(Click picture for a larger image.)

If you plan to store your gas for at least a month, add fuel stabilizer (STA-BIL or Motor Medic) to the fuel. Typical mix is 2 oz. for every 5 gallons of gas. Manufacturers claim it’ll last up to 1 year. I’ve had gas remain in good condition for upwards of 18 months.

Carrying extra gas is important for every 4WD trip. Use this information to help you determine which type and size(s) of gas cans are best for your vehicle and driving. You can then go four wheeling confident that you have some spare gas if your tank runs low. ##########################
Related Articles from Badlands Off-road Adventures Did you miss the previous article? Some Upcoming Events

(click on the link for details)
Mojave Lower Desert, CA
(Click picture for a larger image.) Summary of upcoming events.







########################## Rocks Clinic June 20

Rocks

The Class will be in Johnson Valley. This is an introduction to Rock crawling but it is not on "baby" rocks. We take our time and stress careful wheel placement. We use spotters for difficult sections. You learn by inspecting the obstacle and predicting the line; by watching others try their line; by experiencing it yourself; and by the coaching. We recommend you repeat the training several times. You will be much more relaxed the second time over the same obstacles and you will pick up on little details missed the first time. More Details...


You can register directly at http://www.4x4training.com/calendar/calendar.php#Rocks






##########################
Wine Safari July 25 We have two big events coming up during July and August - The Wine Safari and the Rubicon Trail. It is time to register for both events. The Wine Safari is only a few weekends away and you need to start planning for the Rubicon Trail (see below).





Don't miss the Wine Safari. Click here for all details.
Our Wine Master will have a whole new bunch of bottles and some old favorites to taste. Make it a get-away weekend. Camp with us or stay in a local motel.




Register now.
http://4x4training.com/calendar/calendar.php#wine.



########################## Rubicon Trail Adventure August 10- 13, 2015

The Rubicon Trail is the stuff of legends. It is considered the Grand Daddy of trails. If your vehicle has a weakness, it will find it. Any serious four-wheeler needs to "Do the 'Con" at least once. There is no guarantee of avoiding vehicle damage. Even the most skilled driver can succumb to the fatigue of 12 unrelenting miles of rocks. Just bring a good attitude and the best prepared vehicle you can. This could be a once in a lifetime trip but a lifelong of bragging rights. More Details


You need to register now so you have time to prepare. Register directly at http://4x4training.com/calendar/calendar.php#Rubicon








Winch Recovery Bandana & Winching DVD
Click for higher resolution image We have our new stock with many new colors (Red, Orange, Green, and Blue) on hand. The Bandana is packed full of useful information and is a quick reference in the field when no DVD player is available."

The Bandana layout follows the “Vehicle Recovery Plan” with pathways to more detail. A unique section of the Bandana, gives the steps for a “Winch Rigging Check: Walk through” so that you verify every element of the rigging before you commit to the pull. Stuff this in your recovery kit and you will always be ready!

Pick up or order the Winching DVD too! There is no substitute for hands on training. If you can, sign up for one of Badlands Off-Road Adventure’s Winching Clinics.

Warning – the Bandana and DVD are not a substitute for proper training and use of quality equipment that is used within the bounds of their safe working load. We advise you to use the information provided in both the Winching Recovery Bandana and the "Basic to Advanced Winching and Recovery DVD" at your own risk. We cannot control the quality and specifications of the equipment used and the methods actually employed.

Winch Recovery Bandana Order Button
Colors Orange Red Blue Natural Green Natural

Order a Basic to Advanced Winching & Recovery DVD too!


(Click picture for more details)













I hope to see you on the trails!
Tom Severin, President
Badlands Off Road Adventures, Inc.
4-Wheel Drive School
310-613-5473
http://www.4x4training.com
Make it Fun. Keep it Safe.
#####
If you find this information valuable, please pass it on to a friend. You can forward them the email. If you received a forwarded copy of this newsletter and would like to subscribe for yourself, go to: www.4x4training.com/contacts.html and follow the instructions to join our mail list.
Want To Use This Article In Your Magazine, E-Zine, Club Newsletter Or Web Site? You are welcome to use it anytime, just be sure to include the following author/copyright information: Tom Severin, 4x4 Coach, teaches 4WD owners how to confidently and safely use their vehicles to the fullest extent in difficult terrain and adverse driving conditions. Visit www.4x4training.com to develop or improve your driving skill.

Copyright 2015, Badlands Off-Road Adventures, Inc.

When Disaster Calls, Amateur Radio Answers

Tue, 03/17/2015 - 00:00
When Disaster Calls, Amateur Radio Answers It is great to be able to reach out to an Amateur Radio repeater when off-road
(Click picture for a larger image.)
A recent act of vandalism serves as a reminder to have diverse communications capability with you while four wheeling.

Vandals cut a major fiber optic cable in Arizona on Feb. 25, disrupting communications throughout the northern part of the state. Cellphone, internet and telephone services were affected, along with ATMs, banks, and other entities.

While this was an isolated incident, it serves as a reminder of how vulnerable our communications infrastructure is. You’re more likely to lose comm to some natural disaster, but in these days, we have to be mindful of willful acts of destruction.

Primer on ham radio We often say ham radio communication will be the last standing form in the event of a disaster. This is because each ham owns their own transmitter / receiver and most of it works off the grid – on batteries in the vehicle.

Amateur or “ham” radio is a private radio service available to you. It requires a license, for which you take one or more written exams. (There are three classes of license; each requires a written exam.) Once licensed, you have access to various frequency bands and modes of operation. I hold a Technician class license—the first level—and my callsign is KI6FHA. For more on ham radio, check out the website for the American Radio Relay League (ARRL), the national association for amateur radio - www.arrl.org .

There are currently over 700,000 licensed ham operators in the United states. The number is growing weekly (at the end of 1991 there were 494,000 hams).

In addition to offering more frequency bands, ham radio equipment generally puts out more power. This is especially true of the mobile radios. While a CB radio is limited to 4 watts output, mobile ham VHF/UHF radios (the kind I’m recommending here) transmit with 40 to 50 watts or more. You can find single band 2 meter (more on "2 meter" later) radios that will transmit up to 75 watts in a mobile radio. As a ham operator you can legally transmit even higher wattage but that is not practical in a mobile unit using a car battery.

Ham radio operators often access repeaters, as well. Repeaters are standalone transceivers (usually on a summit) that automatically retransmit—“repeat”—the signal. This boosts the effective range of a radio considerably. It is not uncommon to talk with someone several counties away.

Before going on the air, make sure you have your ham radio license. You can get by with the Technician class license. Exams cover a host of topics, including rules and regs, radio theory, operating procedures, and more. The ARRL and W5YI-VEC (http://www.w5yi.org/ ) offer study guides. Practice exams are available at various websites, including the ARRL web site and also this one: www.QRZ.com . Finally, the ARRL website is a good resource to find a test session. (BTW there are only 35 multiple choice questions and no Morse code required for the Technician class. And you can get the entire pool of 350 questions to study in advance.)

Now that you’re licensed, it’s time to buy your ham radio gear. Even though you’ll have access to the full ham radio spectrum, for the purposes of this article, we’ll focus on VHF and UHF operation.

The most popular band for mobile operation is known as 2 meters. This covers 144 – 148 MHz. A very popular UHF band, often called either 70 cm or “the 440 band”, falls at 420 – 450 MHz (for US hams).

All 2 meter and 440 radios allow users to operate in either simplex or duplex operation. Simplex, in simple terms, is what you would use for vehicle to vehicle chatting on the trail. FRS radios operate this way. Duplex operation is used for repeater operation. Your radio transmits on one frequency and listens for the repeater on a different frequency. Having additional power and repeater capability can be very important while four wheeling. (Of course, that depends on whether a repeater is within range.)

Consider a dual-band radio. A dual band radio provide the capability to use both the 2 meter and 70 cm bands. These give you the ability to adapt to the any repeater in places where you’ll be. (You can find repeater frequencies online.) Prices for a good, used dual-band radio probably run around $150 - $200.

If you’re a bit strapped for cash, consider just a 2 meter radio. Being the more popular band, you’re more likely to find 2 meter repeaters where ever you’re going.

No radio operates without an antenna. For newcomers, I recommend starting with a mag mount style. The mag mount will get you on the air quickly. After you become familiar with your ham radio gear, install a permanent antenna. You set the antenna on the trunk or rear bumper, and string the coax through a window. A down side to a mag mount antenna on the roof of your vehicle is it is easily knocked off if you drive through heavy brush.

A good dual-band mag mount antenna can be had for less than $50, based on a quick peek online. You may have to tune (adjust) the antenna for maximum performance. Most ham radio operators would be happy to assist with that.

Ham radio equipment Popular brands include Alinco, Kenwood, Icom and Yaesu. Ask some ham radio operators for their suggestions, then try out a few models. Ditto for antennas. I highly recommend the Yaesu FT8800R. It is a bit expensive but it is a dual band radio that has two radios side by side built into one small package. You could talk vehicle-to-vehicle on one radio and listen to a repeater on the other radio.


Here are some things to look for in a mobile ham radio for 4-wheeling:
  1. Dual band feature (2 m / 70 cm) - access any repeaters as you travel regardless if they are 2 meter or 70 centimeters.
  2. High output wattage - nice to have extra power to reach a remote repeater. There seems to be a tradeoff between power and dual band. Most single band 2 meter radios have more output power.
  3. Large memory capability - pre plan the repeaters for a long expedition and have room to store them all
  4. Easy to read display - size, contrast, back light, for driving safety and ease of use
  5. Removable control head - increases mounting options in the vehicle. The bulk of the radio and can go under a seat or in the trunk.
  6. Sealed radio - the cooling fan should not pull air (and, therefore dust) through the radio.
  7. NOAA weather alert - important to keep an eye on the weather when off road.
  8. Cross band repeater function - see above
  9. Ease of use. This is a bit relative. Today’s radios have so many functions, they can be challenging to program the first time. Another reason to get yourself a mentor (known as an Elmer).


You may like other features; this is just a start.

And I should mention that ham radio isn’t restricted to off-road use. Heck, you’re welcome to operate wherever and whenever. In fact, put your ham radio skills and driving skills to use by helping out in a charity ride. You’ll have fun, polish your operating skills, and help a worthy cause.

Incorporating ham radio equipment into your 4WD vehicle adds a new dimension to your communication capabilities. It is very useful for routine operating, and could make a big difference during an emergency in a remote area.

##########################
Related Articles from Badlands Off-road Adventures Did you miss the previous article? Some Upcoming Events

(click on the link for details)

Calf Creek Falls, Grand Staircase UT
(Click picture for a larger image.) Summary of upcoming events.






########################## Rocks Clinic March 22

Rocks

The Class will be in Johnson Valley. This is an introduction to Rock crawling but it is not on "baby" rocks. We take our time and stress careful wheel placement. We use spotters for difficult sections. You learn by inspecting the obstacle and predicting the line; by watching others try their line; by experiencing it yourself; and by the coaching. We recommend you repeat the training several times. You will be much more relaxed the second time over the same obstacles and you will pick up on little details missed the first time. More Details...


You can register directly at http://www.4x4training.com/calendar/calendar.php#Rocks








Winch Recovery Bandana & Winching DVD
Click for higher resolution image We have our new stock with many new colors (Red, Orange, Green, and Blue) on hand. The Bandana is packed full of useful information and is a quick reference in the field when no DVD player is available."

The Bandana layout follows the “Vehicle Recovery Plan” with pathways to more detail. A unique section of the Bandana, gives the steps for a “Winch Rigging Check: Walk through” so that you verify every element of the rigging before you commit to the pull. Stuff this in your recovery kit and you will always be ready!

Pick up or order the Winching DVD too! There is no substitute for hands on training. If you can, sign up for one of Badlands Off-Road Adventure’s Winching Clinics.

Warning – the Bandana and DVD are not a substitute for proper training and use of quality equipment that is used within the bounds of their safe working load. We advise you to use the information provided in both the Winching Recovery Bandana and the "Basic to Advanced Winching and Recovery DVD" at your own risk. We cannot control the quality and specifications of the equipment used and the methods actually employed.

Winch Recovery Bandana Order Button
Colors Orange Red Blue Natural Green Natural

Order a Basic to Advanced Winching & Recovery DVD too!


(Click picture for more details)













73
KI6FHA
I hope to see you on the trails!
Tom Severin, President
Badlands Off Road Adventures, Inc.
4-Wheel Drive School
310-613-5473
http://www.4x4training.com
Make it Fun. Keep it Safe.
#####
If you find this information valuable, please pass it on to a friend. You can forward them the email. If you received a forwarded copy of this newsletter and would like to subscribe for yourself, go to: www.4x4training.com/contacts.html and follow the instructions to join our mail list.
Want To Use This Article In Your Magazine, E-Zine, Club Newsletter Or Web Site? You are welcome to use it anytime, just be sure to include the following author/copyright information: Tom Severin, 4x4 Coach, teaches 4WD owners how to confidently and safely use their vehicles to the fullest extent in difficult terrain and adverse driving conditions. Visit www.4x4training.com to develop or improve your driving skill.

Copyright 2015, Badlands Off-Road Adventures, Inc.